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Población y Desarrollo

Print version ISSN 2076-0531On-line version ISSN 2076-054X

Poblac.Desarro. vol.26 no.50 SAN LORENZO June 2020 


Virtualization of computer equipment and services: an alternative for institutions as an approach to the technological frontier

Justo Manuel Camacho-Guerreros1 

1Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas. San Lorenzo, Paraguay

Virtualization, as an expression, arises in the 60s associated with large calculation centers such as banking, military and university institutions; understood as the abstraction of the resources of a computer and its operation as a virtual machine in another physical machine (Turban et al., 2008). Essentially it consists of grouping services and applications of computer systems into the same hardware, where users and even the same system visualize as an independent machine. (Doña et al., 2008))

The term virtualization was developed and adjusted to the demands of users, gaining importance in the world of information technologies.

The basic components of a virtualization platform are the hypervisor, the guest and the host.

The host, in its English host system, refers to the machine or operating system where the virtual machine and hypervisor is, and, the guest, in English guest, corresponds to the virtual machine that runs on the host to provide to the users the services.

From the appearance of the so-called mainframe manufactured by the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) (Villar, Gómez, 2005), until our times, one of the sectors with the highest growth and innovation index was that of computer technology that registered the 8, 6% of the total patents registered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, 2017), surpassing digital communication (8.2%), electronic devices (6.8%) and even medical technology ( 6.7%); concentrating in this sector more demanding and suppliers of computer equipment and services.

This situation allows the technological frontier, considered as the index of the most advanced capital good that has been invented in the world (Jones, 2000), to experience upward displacement with certain periodicity, revealing the technical obsolescence of several computer equipment and the marked difference between the services they offer to their users.

Virtualization can be performed a) of hardware, in this virtual machines are created whose behavior is like that of a real machine, it has its own operating system, also known as platform virtualization. b) operating system, quite similar to that of the hardware, but the host machine is the one that runs an operating system and virtualization software interacts against it, commonly known as software virtualization. c) storage, is the union of multiple storage devices connected in a network, so that they look like a single unit. d) desktop, for this the separation of the desktop environment from the physical machine is required, with which in a desktop server machine programs and other types of calculations can be executed, showing the graphic interface of the desktop in another remote machine with which the user interacts. e) network, lies in the union of several heterogeneous network elements in a virtual network, topologically dispersed and connected to different networks.

Virtualization generates advantages and disadvantages. Among the advantages we can mention a) it allows to isolate the characteristics of the devices, b) the resources are visualized by the users as if they were dedicated and c) the homogenization of resources facilitates the standardization of procedures and configurations.

These advantages contribute to saving costs in the institution that chose to work with this methodology, due to the lower electricity consumption generated, compared to the amount of equipment that should be available to meet the needs of its users, improve the efficiency of its human resources, on the one hand administrative, in the sense of the capacity of response that they have thanks to the computer equipment of greater size and on the other, technical, with the standardization mentioned above can provide a dynamic support of processes.

Also, among the disadvantages of virtualization are the problems associated with compatibility with hardware devices, difficulty in the configuration of services offered by corporations such as Microsoft Windows, SQL Server, Exchange among others, the need for more hardware resources of the server in terms of data processing and storage and related to the use of virtual licenses, due to the legal treatment that each country carries out on this point. Additionally, as a disadvantage, it is possible to mention the sensation that administrators and users perceive as an increase in the complexity of the systems, the challenges in the matter of testing the applications to be established and the low availability of technicians specialized in these applications.

This technical issue has an economic implication, that is, making the decision to change the computer equipment that helps the institutions to fulfill their purposes, implies financial expenditures, a great human effort to adapt them and sometimes underutilization of The acquired equipment. Given this situation, virtualization is used to provide an alternative to institutions that seek to incorporate cutting-edge technology to optimize the use of their resources.


Doña, J.; García, E.; López, J.; Pascual, F. y Pascual R. (2010). Virtualización de servidores, una solución de futuro. Documento en línea. Disponible en: [ Links ]

Jones, C. (2002), Introduction to Economic Growth, Norton, Nueva York. [ Links ]

Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual (OMPI). (2017). Informe mundial sobre la propiedad intelectual en 2017. OMPI: Ginebra. Disponible en: ]

Turban, E., et al. (2008) A Managerial Perspective. Electronic Commerce 2006, Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River. [ Links ]

Villar, E. y Gómez, J. (2005). Introducción a la virtualización. Recuperado de: ]

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