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Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna

On-line version ISSN 2312-3893


SOLIZ RIVERO, Gardenia; MESTANZA ROSERO, María Gabriela; PINOS TIGRERO, John Israel  and  ANDRADE RADA, Jessica Valeria. Sodium disorders. Rev. virtual Soc. Parag. Med. Int. [online]. 2021, vol.8, n.1, pp.156-166. ISSN 2312-3893.

Sodium is one of the main extracellular cations that is responsible for controlling extracellular volume and blood pressure. Sodium enters the body from food and drink and is eliminated mainly in sweat and urine. An intact kidney function maintains a constant sodium concentration, adjusting the amount excreted in the urine. When sodium intake and loss are not in balance, the total amount of sodium in the body is altered. These changes in sodium concentrations cause disturbances in the water balance. Both hyponatremia (Na < 135 mEq/L) and hypernatremia (> 145 mEq/L) mainly cause neurological symptoms. The onset of symptoms related to hyponatremia is due to the severity and rapidity of the change in plasma sodium concentration. In healthy individuals, ingestion of water does not lead to hyponatremia because the suppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), allows excess water to be excreted in dilute urine.

This bibliographic review is based on updated studies and clinical guidelines, the objective of which is to facilitate the correction of sodium disorders in a more summarized, practical and schematic way.

Keywords : Sodium; hypernatremia; hyponatremia.

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