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Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna

On-line version ISSN 2312-3893


CHAVEZ ALFONSO, Christian Osmar  and  CENTURION, Osmar Antonio. Epidemiological concepts, diagnostic and pharmacological management of chronic congestive heart failure. Rev. virtual Soc. Parag. Med. Int. [online]. 2019, vol.6, n.1, pp.75-85.  Epub Mar 01, 2019. ISSN 2312-3893.

Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional deterioration of the ventricular filling or cardiac output. The typical clinical manifestations of heart failure are dyspnea and fatigue, which can limit exercise tolerance, and fluid retention leading to pulmonary and splanchnic congestion, and peripheral edema. The prevalence of HF is approximately 1-2% of the adult population in developed countries, and increases to more than 10% among people 70 years or older. The risk of HF at age 55 is 33% for men and 28% for women. There is a categorical tendency towards an increase in life expectancy in the world population, which consequently results in an increased incidence of heart failure. Therefore, scientific research should focus on searching for better diagnostic and treatment strategies in this elderly population. Frequently, cardiomyopathy is the cause of systolic or diastolic ventricular dysfunction. However, the heart valves diseases, pericardium, endocardium, cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders can also cause HF, in some cases it can be caused by a combination of more than one of them. Treatment goals for patients with HF are aimed on optimizing clinical status, improving functional capacity and quality of life, preventing hospitalizations and reducing mortality. Experimental and clinical studies should focus on continuing to provide data on the pathophysiology of heart failure, on diagnostic criteria, the characterization of special subgroups, and the identification of new pharmacological agents to improve the preventive and curative therapeutic strategy in patients with chronic congestive heart failure.

Keywords : heart failure; therapeutics; cardiomyopathies; stroke volume; epidemiology.

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