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Revista Virtual de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Medicina Interna

On-line version ISSN 2312-3893

Abstract

PORTILLO, Carmen; GONZALEZ, Derlis; NUNEZ, Duilio  and  BENITEZ, Gustavo. Cytomegalovirus in immunocompromised patients detected by PCR in Paraguay from 2008 to 2015. Rev. virtual Soc. Parag. Med. Int. [online]. 2016, vol.3, n.2, pp.77-084. ISSN 2312-3893.  https://doi.org/10.18004/rvspmi/2312-3893/2016.03(02)77-084.

Introduction: The infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by direct contact with infected secretions, is frequent in developing countries, and produces latency state, chronicity and active infection with replication in the absence of clinical disease. In transplant recipients, it is related to a late development of the disease and in newborns (NB) to congenital infection. Objective: The aim was to identify CMV DNA by qualitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to confirm infection and the development of the disease by viral load in patients from different health services who have some form of immunosuppression in Paraguay. Methodology: Design: descriptive cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2015. We included EDTA blood samples or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The DNA extraction was made with Qiagen® followed by nested PCR which detects a product of 78 bp, Artus® CMV Rotor Gene Qiagen Test in a real time PCR equipment was used for viral load. Results: In total, 521 samples were included, 416 for qualitative PCR: 338 from blood, 78 from CSF and 105 for viral loads. There were 247 men, 246 women and 28 NBs; 303 from the Central Hospital of the Social Security Institute, 129 from the Ministry of Health and 89 from private hospitals. PCR detected CMV DNA in 248 (60%) samples: 63% in blood and 45% in CSF; 124 in women and 107 in men, 17 in NBs and 60-62% in the group of 0-30 years. Viral load resulted in 81 (77%) samples: <10 copies/mL or undetectable, in 24 samples values from 30 to 221,000 copies/mL. Conclusions: CMV infection was confirmed in Paraguay using qualitative PCR and development of the disease by viral load in immunocompromised patients: transplanted, dialyzed, and with HIV; in NBs due to congenital infection. Most patients were young (0-30 years) and from public services, viral prophylaxis or early therapy was implemented.

Keywords : cytomegalovirus infections; immunsuppression; polymerase chain reaction; viral load; immunocompromised host.

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