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Revista de salud publica del Paraguay

On-line version ISSN 2307-3349

Abstract

MONTIEL-JAROLIN, Dora Elizabeth et al. Guillain Barré syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with a differential diagnosis of dengue. Rev. salud publica Parag. [online]. 2021, vol.11, n.1, pp.112-116. ISSN 2307-3349.  https://doi.org/10.18004/rspp.2021.junio.112.

Introduction:

Guillain-Barré syndrome has been associated with infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus since the beginning of the pandemic.

Clinical case:

56-year-old man without comorbidity or toxic habits, consultation for a 4-day history of paresthesia in the hands and feet simultaneously, lower limb weakness, without other symptoms. The patient 22 days before, presented cough and dyspnea, 3 days of evolution, the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 was positive, with outpatient treatment. He was referred to dengue in december 2019. Physical examination: Blood pressure 140/80 mmHg, heart rate 114 per minute, temperature 36 degrees, respiratory rate 20 per minute. Neurological examination: lucid patient, decreased muscular strength of the lower limbs 4/5, absent osteotendinous reflexes in four limbs, without sensory level or sphincter involvement, negative Babinski sign, absent meningeal signs. Rest of the physical examination without valuable data. Laboratory tests: white blood cells 11.5 x 10 9 / L, neutrophils: 74%, lymphocytes: 18%. Erythrosedimentation 14 mm, glycemia 99 mg / dL urea: 19 mg / dl, creatinine: 0.7 mg / dL, arterial gas: pH: 7.39, pco2: 27, pO2: 76, EB: - 7.6, HCO3 16 SO2: 96 , D-dimer 489 ng / ml. Elisa serology: HIV: negative, IGM serology negative: herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, dengue antigen NS1: negative; dengue IgG and IgM serology: positive (November 2020, immunochromatographic test, SD, Korea), (SARS-CoV-2 IgG / IgM positive, Zika and chikungunya negative). Antinuclear antibody (ANA): 1/80, anti deoxyribonuclease (anti DNA): negative, serology negative (anti proteinase 3 / myeloperoxidase, extractable antigen from the nucleus) Cerebrospinal fluid: (CSF): (glycorrhachia) : 63 mg / dL protein: 88 mg / dL leukocytes: 2 cells / μl). PCR in CSF for SARS-CoV-2 virus was not performed. Electromyography: Findings suggestive of demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Chest CT scan: pattern in bilateral patched ground glass He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin with complete recovery of muscle strength.

Discussion:

GBS appeared on day 22 of the COVID-19 disease, there is a temporal relationship, it responds to post-infectious model and the pathogenesis would be autoimmune in nature

Keywords : COVID-19; Guillain-Barré syndrome; SARS-CoV-2; dengue.

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