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Revista de salud publica del Paraguay

Print version ISSN 2224-6193On-line version ISSN 2307-3349


ARBO, Laura Mendoza de et al. Screening of antibiotic residues and mycotoxins in fluid pasteurized cow's milk marketed in Paraguay. Rev. salud publica Parag. [online]. 2020, vol.10, n.2, pp.23-29. ISSN 2307-3349.


The frequency of residues of antibiotics and mycotoxins present in milk above the established maximum limits has increased in recent years, representing a risk to public health worldwide. In Paraguay, the existing research is scarce in this regard, so it is a priority to carry out a diagnosis of the situation.


To determine the presence of antibiotics and mycotoxins in a representative sample of pasteurized liquid milk produced, packaged and registered in Paraguay according to the regulations of MERCOSUR and FDA.

Material and Methods:

We carried out a cross-sectional study with sampling according to the Codex CAC/GL 50-2004 methodology. We analyzed 450 samples of pasteurized liquid milk, registered in Paraguay, collected in two seasons (summer and winter). We analyzed the presence of gentamicin, β-lactams, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline using qualitative determination kits and for Aflatoxin M1 we used a quantitative kit and High Efficiency Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometer (LC/MS/MS) as confirmatory method . We use 0.5 ppb (MERCOSUR and FDA) as the maximum mycotoxin concentration limit.


All the samples we analyzed were negative for antibiotics. Mycotoxin M1 levels were asymmetrically distributed, the median was 0.052 ppb (maximum range 0.019-0.160), all values ​​were below the limits established in MERCOSUR. According to seasonality, the median in summer was 0.042 and in winter 0.066 (p<0.001). According to the European Community standard, 33.3% and 75.6% of the samples were above the limit in summer and winter respectively.


In the samples we analyzed, we did not detect the presence of antibiotics and the levels of mycotoxins were below the maximum concentration allowed by the MERCOSUR and FDA regulations. However, to access more competitive markets, it is a priority to work with greater emphasis on the implementation of Good Livestock Practices.

Keywords : dairy product; antibiotics; mycotoxin; Paraguay.

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