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Revista de salud publica del Paraguay

On-line version ISSN 2307-3349

Abstract

VIVEROS, C et al. Epidemiology of Malaria in Paraguay. Rev. salud publica Parag. [online]. 2017, vol.7, n.1, pp.37-44. ISSN 2307-3349.  https://doi.org/10.18004/rspp.2017.junio.37-44.

Introduction:

Malaria is vector borne disease caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium. It is transmitted to humans by the infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles. The infected patient with Malaria is the main reservoir of the infection. In Paraguay this disease has historically been related to certain poverty geographic region, such Alto Paraná, Caaguazú and Canindeyú, where environmental changes were predominantly present mostly because of population expansion, and major construction sites, such as the Itaipu hydroelectric dam. These departments had high Annual Parasitic Index (API), indicators used in the malaria control stage according to the classification stipulated for the country.

Objective:

to describe the epidemiological history of the last 60 years of malaria in Paraguay, and the main strategies that were used for the elimination.

Methods:

Is a cross-sectional descriptive study based on the data collected through the years by the National Service of Malaria Eradication (SENEPA).

Results:

The sustained monitoring and control activities, based mostly on institutional and community surveillance, through reporting posts and voluntary collaborators, have managed to reduce the number of cases over a period of ten years (2000-2011) by 99%. One of the goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2015 to achieve a 50% reduction in the number of cases, keeping control on the fringe of success.

Conclusion:

The current epidemiology of malaria in Paraguay is characterized by a situation of autochthonous nontransmission, but with a potential risk of re-introduction, taking into account the increasing migratory flow with endemic countries and the presence of conditions for transmission, such as the wide distribution of vector species in the national territory and the recent process of cross-cutting surveillance and patient care actions towards health services.

Keywords : Malaria; Eradication; Epidemic; Plasmodium.

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