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Investigación Agraria

versión On-line ISSN 2305-0683


VILLALBA MARTINEZ, Carlos Javier; MERINO GARCIA, Agustín  y  ETCHEVERS BARRA, Jorge. Diagnosis of the chemical fertility of soils (Rhodic Paleudult) in agricultural and forest systems of the Eastern region of Paraguay. Investig. Agrar. [online]. 2020, vol.22, n.2, pp.92-99. ISSN 2305-0683.

Soil management systems affect the quality and sustainability of agricultural production, especially in the tropics. The soils of the Vaquería area of Paraguay present an extreme fragility to overexploitation, due to the high extraction of nutrients from the soil. A frequent practice to reduce its degradation is direct sowing, although this system increases yield in a short term, as time passes since its implementation, a decrease in productivity is observed. This could be due to the overexploitation of the resource and the low replacement of the nutrients extracted by the crop. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical properties of the soil in which direct sowing has been practiced for 15 years and to compare them with those of a soil under pasture established on agricultural soil. The soil chosen was a Rhodic Paleudult, sandy, poor in organic matter and low CEC, representative of the area. Three management systems were compared: (a) the direct sowing of soybeans and corn without removing harvest residues (fifteen consecutive years); with (b) a native pasture; and, with (c) natural forest as witness. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five replications. The samples were taken 3 consecutive years (2017, 2018 and 2019) soil samples were collected from the 0 to 20 cm layer. The samples were analyzed to determine pH, organic matter, Al3+, CEC, macro and micronutrients, to evaluate their dynamics in a short time. The study did not reveal significant variations during the 3 years of follow-up in any of the parameters evaluated. The comparison of the treatments showed that the soil managed with direct sowing presented higher acidity and lower availability of nutrients compared to the pasture and the forest.

Palabras clave : Soil acidity; available aluminum; availability of nutrients.

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