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Revista Internacional de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales

On-line version ISSN 2226-4000


CASTILLO-ARMIJO, Pablo  and  NORAMBUENA-SANDOVAL, Ivette. Special Education during the Chilean dictatorship to its consolidation in current times. Rev. Int. Investig. Cienc. Soc. [online]. 2020, vol.16, n.2, pp.267-293. ISSN 2226-4000.

This article presents a critical analysis of the historical, political and pedagogical path of special education, this analysis establishes a starting point when special education in Chile was seen as a simple modality or subsystem, and therefore invisible and with limited resources to his favor, until his institutional consolidation coincides with the Chilean dictatorship phase (1973-1990). From this historical finding, we discuss in depth aspects such as its clinical approach and focused on the abnormality, the various welfare policies for "sick" people, like was considered, the people with some type of disability. These dictatorship policies promoted differential groups in schools, the creation of diagnostic centers and microcenters and new private and municipal special schools that have created the architecture that persisted until recently in Chile. This situation will mark a whole generation of specialists and differential educators who would transmit this approach focused on the abnormality beyond the historical context analyzed and we believe that certain clinical elements still exist in the current diagnoses to accredit Special Educational Needs (SEN). The current system of promoting a new public and inclusive education promoted by the last center-left government of Michelle Bachelet (2014-2018) has contradicted the function and role that differential educators must play in Chilean schools from now on, since more and more students are integrated into traditional educational centers, “normal center”, and they are in a moment of redefining the mission of these educators, if is necessary maintain their clinical and individual attention to students with SEN or they must turn 180º towards inclusive supports to all students and teachers in general.

Keywords : Special Education; educational integration; Chilean Case; Dictatorship; educational policies..

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