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Revista del Nacional (Itauguá)

Print version ISSN 2072-8174


ROLON-MENDEZ, Elías et al. Association between chronotype and depressive symptoms: an exploratory study. Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) [online]. 2023, vol.15, n.2, pp.29-39. ISSN 2072-8174.


chronotype is the natural predisposition of each individual to experience peaks of energy or moments of rest according to their circadian rhythm. Individuals may have morning, evening, or intermediate chronotypes that may be related to the development of depression.


to determine the existence of an association between chronotype and depressive symptomatology in a sample of adults.


this observational, descriptive, and exploratory study was conducted in August 2023. Adults of both sexes were included in this study. Sociodemographic data were collected, and participants answered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Horne and Östberg to assess chronotype, and the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) to assess depressive symptoms. Descriptive statistics were used for all the variables. For inferential statistics, the chi-squared test was used with a confidence level of 95 %. Odds ratio was used to quantify the relationships.


a total of 105 people participated in the study, 58 % of whom were women. The mean age of the sample was 29.4 ± 11.6 years. Sixty-nine percent of the sample presented the morning chronotype, while 31 % presented the evening chronotype. It was found that 31 % of the participants scored positively for depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 3). A relationship was found between chronotype and PHQ-2 cutoff points (p=0.036). An OR=2.5 (95 % CI 1.05-5.95) was found in favor of the evening chronotype for the development of depression.


almost seven out of ten participants had a morning chronotype, whereas three out of ten were positive for depression. Individuals with evening chronotypes are more likely to develop depressive symptoms than those with morning chronotypes.

Keywords : chronotype; chronobiology Phenomena; depression; adults.

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