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Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical

versão impressa ISSN 1996-3696


LOVERA, Dolores et al. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in children and adolescents in a Pediatric Service. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. [online]. 2023, vol.18, n.2, pp.37-44. ISSN 1996-3696.

Introduction: Acute lower respiratory tract infections, of viral etiology, are the main cause of hospitalization and infant mortality. The objective of the present study is to know the frequency of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and prevalent viruses in patients ≤15 years of age. Materials and Methods: Observational, descriptive study, product of SARI surveillance, period January/2019-May/2023. All patients ≤15 years of age hospitalized with a diagnosis of SARI were included. Demographic data, clinical and evolutionary characteristics were analyzed. Results: 256 patients ≤15 years old with a diagnosis of SARI were hospitalized, 54.3% (139/256) male. 69.1% corresponded to <2 years, 15.6% from 2 to 4 years and 15.2% from 5 to 19 years. 17.5% had risk factors. 3.5% (9/256) had an anti-influenza vaccine. The highest number of cases was observed in 2019. In 2020 and 2021, the lowest number of cases was recorded, related to the confinement policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalent virus was Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). In 2019, RSV was the most common virus (p<0.0001.RR=1.56.95%CI= 1.18 - 2.06); SARS - CoV2 was the most frequent in 2020. According to age group, RSV was more frequent in <2 years (p<0.0001.RR=1.70.CI95%=1.18-2.06) and SARS - CoV2 in those ≥2 years (p<0.0001.RR=2.50.95%CI=2.53-3.53). RSV was not associated with risk factors. 39.4% (101/256) required admission to the PICU, a more frequent situation in patients with risk factors (21.7% vs 14.8%,NS). Admission to the ICU was more frequent in those <2 years (44.1% vs 29.1%; p<0.02.RR=1.51.95%CI=1.03-2.22). There were no significant differences in the ICU requirement and the isolated viruses. The fatality rate was 7.8% (20/256), more frequent in females (p<0.02.RR=0.36.95%CI=0.1-0.9), not associated with age or etiology. Conclusion: SARI due to RSV is an important cause of hospitalization in <2 years, more frequent in males. Admission to the PICU was more frequent in those <2 years old. Fatality was more frequent in females.

Palavras-chave : Respiratory Syncytial Viruses; Health Surveillance; Inpatient Care Units; Hospitalization.

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