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Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical

versión impresa ISSN 1996-3696


ARBO, Antonio et al. Comparative study of the Mantoux reaction with the determination of Interferon Gamma in HIV-AIDS patients for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TBL). Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. [online]. 2021, vol.16, n.2, pp.22-28. ISSN 1996-3696.

The WHO estimates that one third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the majority of cases remaining in the form of latent TB (TBL). There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of TBL, hence the global burden of it. Objective: To compare the effectiveness in patients with HIV / AIDS of two diagnostic tests for latent TB (TBL): the Mantoux Test and the determination of Interferon Gamma in peripheral blood. Materials and methods: An observational, descriptive and prospective study with an analytical component, in which patients between 18 months and 60 years of age, patients of both sexes, were consecutively included by non-probabilistic sampling, who attended the office of the National HIV / AIDS Control Program with a recent diagnosis of HIV / AIDS and in whom active TB was ruled out. In all the patients included, PPD was determined at the same time (by injection of tuberculin I of 2IU of potency by intradermal injection in the left forearm) and peripheral blood was taken for determination by the ELISA method of the production of interferon mononuclear cells. gamma in response to MTB antigen (ELISA- QIAGEN - Germany). Results: From October 2017 to October 2019, 659 HIV patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified, of which 99.9% (599 patients) were included, who attended the reading of the PPD test. The mean age of the patients is 34.1 years (SD 13.1 years), 415 (69%) are male. 67.9% (407/599) came from the Central and Asunción Departments. All patients included underwent the PPD and the IGRA test. TBL was detected in 7.6% (46/599) patients, of which, in 8.7% (52/599) the Interferon range was positive (IGRA) and in 3.8% (23/599) PPD was ≥5 (positive). 2% (12/599) patients were positive for both tests. When comparing the aforementioned data, we can see that the IGRA turned out to be the most effective method for detecting TBL, since with it 8.7% of the cases were identified, as opposed to the PPD, which only allowed the identification of 2% of the cases. themselves. 100% (46/46) of the patients diagnosed with TBL received chemoprophylaxis with Isoniazid. Conclusion: The present study aims to define the performance of a new methodology for the detection of latent TB in a population at high risk of coinfection such as those infected with HIV.

Palabras clave : Mycobacterium tuberculosis; epidemiology; pediatrics.

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