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Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical

Print version ISSN 1996-3696


CARDOZO, Miguel. Study of an epidemic outbreak of Brucellosis, related to goat breeding for academic activities, at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine National University of Asunción (UNA). Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. [online]. 2019, vol.14, n.2, pp.41-47. ISSN 1996-3696.

The present study was conducted in 100 patients who consulted in the emergency department of a referral hospital in infectious diseases. Institute of Tropical Medicine (IMT) of Asunción Paraguay, during the period from October / 2017 to March / 2018. The objective of the present work was to describe and characterize the epidemiological pattern of the disease, the working conditions of workers and students' practice, the use of personal protective equipment during contact with animals and the most frequent clinical manifestations and complications. of patients with epidemiological antecedents of having had contact with goats (breeding of 47 goats in total, 11 aborted spontaneously and with positive serology for brucellosis, all sacrificed) of the veterinary faculty UNA. For this, a descriptive study was carried out based on a source provided by the laboratory of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (IMT), Central Laboratory of Public Health (LCSP) and the SENACSA ​​Laboratory. The clinical data were obtained from the medical records of the patients treated in the emergency department during the study period (RAC file). Of the 100 patients who consulted in the IMT. 51 corresponded to women and 49 to men, 35 gave positive serology for brúcela, which presented as more frequent symptoms: asthenia, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, night sweats, headache, anorexia and weight loss. 3 patients presented sacroileitis, 12 arthritis patients, 1 osteomyelitis patient. In 8 patients B. melitensis biobars 1 were isolated in blood and 2 in bone marrow, Of the 35 patients with positive serology, 30 were related to the outbreak of the veterinary faculty, 25 were among veterinarians and veterinary students, 3 corral workers and 2 with epidemiological links with the students. 5 patients with no apparent relationship with the outbreak, 3 refrigerated employees, 1 independent veterinarian and 1 seller suspected of having consumed dairy products. The treatment time was prolonged (45 to 90 days of treatment) depending on the complications or not of the disease, 100% of the patients received the usual scheme: Doxycycline plus Rifampicin, all patients in current follow-up and periodic post-treatment controls : months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. To date we do not find relapse. Conclusions: The characteristics of the learning process (Hospital school) of veterinarians and students, the lack of use of personal protective equipment during practice with animals and the presence of the biological agent in animals and the environment, were decisive in the appearance of the disease in veterinary professionals, students and exposed workers. A new epidemiological pattern has been determined: Urban-labor pattern, by professional exposure to infected cattle. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, night sweats, headache, anorexia and weight loss. 3 patients presented sacroileitis, 12 arthritis patients, 1 osteomyelitis patient that was not related to the outbreak of the veterinary faculty. No patient presented white organ involvement such as endocarditis, abscesses, neurobrucellosis etc. The fundamental pillars in the prevention of this disease are based on the training of teachers, students, workers and directors or heads of areas. In the exhaustive search for animal brucellosis, in cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and especially dogs.

Keywords : Epidemiology; Infectology; prevention.

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