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Revista del Instituto de Medicina Tropical

Print version ISSN 1996-3696


FLORES, Laura Emilce; NARVAEZ, Diana Milagros  and  ARMOA, Alba. Characterization of the accidents of biological risk and use of prophylaxis in health workers by occupational exposure, that consulted in the National Program of Fight against AIDS from January to December of the year 2013. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. [online]. 2018, vol.13, n.1, pp.4-16. ISSN 1996-3696.

One of the routes of transmission of the HIV virus is blood through sharps accidents; health workers who are exposed to needle stick injuries that contain HIV-infected blood have a 0.23% risk of being infected. The objective of this study is to characterize the biological hazard accidents and the use of occupational post-exposure prophylaxis in health workers, who consulted in the National Program to Fight AIDS from January to December 2013. Material and Method: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional design. 66 tokens were included for this study. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, origin, occupation or workplace, time of accident, occupational exposure, health worker, source patient, type of work accident or accident classification according to risk, type of exposure, indication of postprophylaxis exposure, side effects of antiretroviral drugs. Results: 85% were women and 15% were men. The mean age was 33.1 ± 8.9 (20-62) years. Health Workers more exposed were the nursing staff in 36.6%; followed by cleaners 24.24%, and medical personnel 18.8%. The accident was classified as mild in 62.1% and as severe in 37.8%. The type of exposure, in 65.1% was type 1 (punctures, cut with needles grooved or hollow, scalpel), the patient source was known in 54.5% of cases. Among the known source patients, 62% with serology positive for HIV, 77% started Prophylaxis Post Exposure. Only 6% completed the treatment schedule. Among those who completed PPE, one of them presented side effects (dizziness, nausea and facial erythema). Conclusion: Universal precaution is the first line of defense to prevent occupational exposure. Assuming that all patients are potentially infected is the only way to optimize measures to prevent the transmission of this pathology, with assurance of controls and measures to complete prophylaxis if necessary.

Keywords : Biological Hazard; Occupational Accident; Post-Exposure Prophylaxis.

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