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Memorias del Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud

versión On-line ISSN 1812-9528


RIVEROS-MAIDANA, Rocío et al. CRISPR/Cas system: precision genome editing. Mem. Inst. Investig. Cienc. Salud [online]. 2020, vol.18, n.1, pp.97-107. ISSN 1812-9528.

The original function of CRISPR/Cas systems is to destroy the DNA of bacterial viruses. This system has evolved to identify sequences of different DNA viruses and cut them in order to avoid infection. In the cell, the system is made up of Cas genes which produce RNA-guided nucleases capable of cutting DNA. If the guide RNA finds viral DNA with which it can pair up, it recruits the Cas9 nuclease to cut it. This system is used in vitro for gene edition, relying on the production of double-strand breaks and their subsequent repair. Currently, there are several platforms for the design of the guide RNA, and it is also possible to design it manually. The components of the system can be delivered to the cell through a plasmid or through a ribonucleoprotein. In this review we will focus on the original function of CRISPR/Cas in prokaryotes, and in how researchers have modified it in order to provide new genome editing techniques. We will discuss the advantages of this new technique, the ways in which it can be used, and some of the limitations found in its application.

Palabras clave : RNA-guided nucleases; protospacer; sgRNA; double-strand break.

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