Memorias del Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud
versión On-line ISSN 1812-9528
RUOTI COSP, M et al. Illicit drug use and abuse during pregnancy. Mem. Inst. Investig. Cienc. Salud [online]. 2009, vol.7, n.2, pp.32-44. ISSN 1812-9528.
ABSTRACT Illicit drug use and dependence is a serious social problem with high maternal and fetal morbidity. Supply increase and propitious social context allowed that the diffusion of the use of illicit toxic substances entails a growing incidence in pregnant women who use illicit drugs and an increase of newborns affected by the practices of their mothers. Risk evaluation is difficult when gestation is exposed to illicit drugs because the results could be biased by the concomitant consumption of others toxic substances or by psychological and socio-sanitary unfavorable factors. Though a specific pattern of congenital anomalies has not been defined, in general it is considered that drug abuse has an increased risk of anomalous outcomes in pregnancies. This risk is caused by an increase in the risk of congenital malformations due to the probable teratogenicity of some substances or the perinatal morbility affecting the fetal growth or normal pregnancy development. Although it has not been demonstrated effectively, there are also possible long-term repercussions in the learning capacity and behavior of the children exposed intra uterus. In conclusion, all pregnancies exposed to illicit drugs must be considered high risk pregnancies and measures should be taken so that the patients avoid these practices supported by a multidisciplinary team. Ideally, this team should start working before pregnancy implying the adoption of preventive measures such as information and public awareness of women in fertile age and support during pregnancy and maternal lactation.
Palabras clave : Marijuana; cocaine; amphetamines; heroin; LSD; ecstasy; pregnancy; lactation.