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Pediatría (Asunción)

On-line version ISSN 1683-9803


OZUNA, Samira; MESQUITA, Mirta; GODOY SANCHEZ, Laura Evangelina  and  CARDOZO, Olivia. Clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with severe bronchiolitis in infants under 24 months of age. A case control study. Pediatr. (Asunción) [online]. 2022, vol.49, n.3, pp.154-161. ISSN 1683-9803.


In developing countries, in addition to comorbidities, other factors could increase the risk of severe respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical, sociodemographic, and environmental risk factors associated with admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of infants younger than 24 months with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis.

Materials and methods:

the study design was case-control. Infants from 0 to 24 months of age with a diagnosis of severe bronchiolitis who were admitted to the PICU were included, and the controls were infants with mild to moderate bronchiolitis, without PICU requirement. Cases with incomplete medical records and the inability to communicate with parents were excluded. Variables: low birth weight, preterm delivery and presence of underlying diseases (UD), socioeconomic level, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) up to 6 months of age, exposure to environmental smoke and tobacco. Data were analyzed in SPSS V21. The hospital ethics committee approved the study and parental informed consent was obtained.


220 patients were included. Control case 1:1. In the bivariate analysis, the cases were associated with the presence of UD, low birth weight, prematurity, low socioeconomic status, and absence of EBF for up to 6 months. In the adjusted analysis, severe bronchiolitis was associated with the presence of UD, low socioeconomic status, and absence of EBF up to 6 months.


Severe bronchiolitis in infants under 24 months of age was associated with the presence of comorbidities, lack of exclusive breastfeeding, and belonging to low socioeconomic strata.

Keywords : Bronchiolitis; pediatric intensive care unit; risk factors; social class; comorbidity; breastfeeding..

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