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Pediatría (Asunción)

On-line version ISSN 1683-9803


LOVERA, Dolores et al. Pneumonia in infants 6 months of age and younger. Pediatr. (Asunción) [online]. 2020, vol.47, n.2, pp.74-80. ISSN 1683-9803.


Little attention has been given in the literature to community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children younger than 6 months.


To identify CAP cases in patients up to 6 months of age, analyze demographic, clinical and clinical course characteristics, and determine factors associated with severity.

Materials and methods:

Patients with CAP aged 6 months or younger, hospitalized between 2008 and 2019, were included. CAP was defined as the presence of respiratory symptoms and signs (fever, cough and / or respiratory distress) and evidence on chest radiography. of lung condensation. Demographic, clinical characteristics and factors associated with severity were analyzed.


Of 1582 CAP cases in the study period, 256 cases were identified in patients 6 months or younger. 23% of patients had a comorbidity. There was microbial isolation in 8% of cases, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most frequent. One-hundred twenty-two patients (48%) required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), of whom 88 (72%) required mechanical ventilation. Twenty-seven patients (10.5%) died. Of 94 patients younger than 3 months, 77 (82%) were hospitalized in the ICU, while the majority of those who did not require hospitalization were older than 3 months (p <0.001; OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.57-4.33).


This study describes the severity of pneumonia in infants 6 months and younger. The proportion of patients requiring ICU hospitalization is high, as is mortality.

Keywords : Community acquired pneumonia; children ≤6 months; intensive care unit.

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