ISSN 1683-9803 versão on-line
Introduction: Acinetobacter is a Gram-negative coccobacillus whose importance lies in its ability to rapidly acquire resistance to broad spectrum antibiotics and cause nosocomial outbreaks. According to the WHONET analysis done by the microbiology department of the central hospital of the Institute of Social Security, the incidence of Acinetobacter in our unit has increased over the years. Acinetobacter is difficult to control because it is capable of surviving for extended periods on dry surfaces, although the most important means of transmission is on the hands of medical personnel. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Acinetobacter infections in the pediatric intensive care unit. Material and Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study done from January 2005 to August 2007. All patients with positive cultures for Acinetobacter were included. Results: Of 18 patients, 7 (39%) were female and 11 (61%) were male, while the average age was 4.7 months, with a range of from 4 days to 15 years. Average hospital stay was 44 days (10 to 104 days). Patients were catheterized with an average of 4 central venous catheters (1 to 9 catheters). Prior to isolation of the germ, 16 of 18 patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics for 8.6 days and 89% received mechanically assisted ventilation for an average of 12 days. From 10 of 18 patients the bacteria was isolated from tracheal secretions, from 5/18 (28%) from blood cultures, from 2/18 (11%) from catheters and 1/18 (6%) from ear discharge. Bacteria were considered to be hospital-acquired in 16/18 cases (89%) and community-acquired in 2/18 (11%). Treatment was with colistin in 7/18 (39%), other antibiotics in 9/18 (50%) and no treatment was received by 2/18 (11%). Infection-related mortality was 17% (3/18) and unrelated mortality 6% (1/18). Conclusion: Patients entering the ICU on an emergency basis with widespread infection and prior antibiotic treatment and those with prior sepsis are more prone to infection by Acinetobacter. The presence of Acinetobacter in the ICU should be considered a reason for concern due to its ability to survive and cause infections over long periods of time. Efforts should be made to identify infectious agents found in hospitals to quickly establish means of limiting them. Further study is needed to determine the risk factors for our population
Palavras-chave: Acinetobacter; susceptibility; pediatrics; hospital infections.
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