versão On-line ISSN 1683-9803
RODRIGUEZ, M e COMITE DE VIGILANCIA DE INFECCIONES INTRAHOSPITALARIAS DEL HOSPITAL GENERAL PEDIATRICO NINOS DE ACOSTA NU et al. Nosocomial Infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Pediatr. (Asunción) [online]. 2010, vol.37, n.1, pp. 23-29. ISSN 1683-9803.
Introduction: Nosocomial infections (NI) are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients treated in healthcare institutions, and treatment of these infections involves significant costs for both the patient and the healthcare system. Objectives: To determine the rate of nosocomial infections compared to discharged patients, invasive procedures performed, age, infection location, microorganism isolated, and mortality in patients with NI. Material and Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, study carried out between 2006 and 2008 among patients with NI hospitalized in the pediatric intensive therapy unit. We used an active and integrated system of selective internal monitoring of indicators defined by the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. Results: Some 104 instances of NI were reported. Most commonly they were among infants under 1 year of age (48%) with neonates comprising 36%. The rate of NI was 8% (28/359) in the year 2006. 12% (45/363) in 2007 and 10% (31/310) in 2008. Infections were primarily localized as bacteremia (46%) urinary tract infection (23%) or clinical sepsis (16%). The rate of urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with use of an indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) was 17.9 per 1,000 IUC days (27/1,508), while bloodstream infection (BSI) associated with use of a central venous catheter (CVC) was 6.1 per 1,000 CVC days (41/6,668) and the rate of pneumonia associated with mechanically assisted ventilation (MAV) was 2 per 1,000 MAV days (8/3,830). In 84% (87/104) a bacteria was isolated. In UTI with IUC the dominant species were Candida sp. (82%, 22/27) followed by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae , and P.aeruginosa (7%, 2/27%). In BSI with CVC, coagulase-negative methicillin-resistant staphylococci were isolated in 13/41 (33%), ESBL K.pneumoniae in 10/41 (24%), and Candida sp. in 6/41 (15%). Mortality recorded was 20% (21/104). Conclusions: The rate of NI ranged from 8% to 12%. Infants and neonates were most affected. IUC for UTI was the procedure with greatest risk. Mortality was high.
Palavras-chave : Cross infections; hospital infection; nosocomial infection; invasive procedures; catheter-related infections; transmission; newborn infants; neonates; mortality.