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Pediatría (Asunción)

On-line version ISSN 1683-9803


GODOY TORALES, Gladys M  and  ZACUR DE JIMENEZ, Mabel. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Causes, Clinical Characteristics, and Evaluation of Factors Associated with Symptomatic Polycythemia. Pediatr. (Asunción) [online]. 2008, vol.35, n.2, pp.77-87. ISSN 1683-9803.

Introduction: The incidence of newborns (NB) with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in Latin America and the Caribbean is 10%. Objectives:To determine the causes and characteristics of IUGR in children born at the Hospital Nacional in Paraguay from January 1999 to December 2001 and establish which factors are associated with symptomatic polycythemia. Materials and Methods: An observational and descriptive retrospective cohort study with nested case-controls including 259 NB with birth-weight below the 3d percentile. Results:165 (64%) of NBs were premature, with a mean age of 33.1 ± 3.1 weeks. 220 NB (84.9%) showed symmetrical IUGR and 37 (14.2%) perinatal asphyxia. The most frequent causes of IUGR were maternal hypertension 87 (33.5%), adolescent mother 67 (25.9%), older mothers 44 (17%), twin pregnancy 34 (13%), and STORCH group infections 17 (6.5%). The dominant pathologies in NBs were hyperbilirubinemia 119 (47%), transitory tachypnea 76 (30%), hyaline membrane disease 49 (19%), nosocomial sepsis 43 (17%), and hypoglycemia 14 (36%). Of the 195 NB with hematocrit (HCT), 53 (27%) developed polycythemia, and of those, 14 (26%) were symptomatic. Symptoms included hypoglycemia 6 (43%), weak suck 6 (43%), apneas 4 (18%), respiratory distress and hypotonia 3 (21%). The NB with symptomatic polycythemia had mostly suffered asphyxia (OR=2.92), had asymmetric IUGR (OR=2.39), or been children of preeclamptic mothers (OR=1.73). NB with thrombocytopenia were least frequently symptomatic. No significant difference was shown in mean HCT between symptomatic and asymptomatic NB. Conclusions:The most common cause of IUGR was maternal arterial hypertension (AHT). More than half of NB with IUGR were premature, with the symmetrical form being more common. Factors associated with evolution of polycythemia were NB who were asphyxiated or with preeclamptic mothers.

Keywords : fetal growth retardation; etiology; risk factors; symptomatic polycythemia.

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