On-line version ISSN 1683-9803
MESQUITA, M; IRAMAIN, R and TROCHE, Z. Neonatal anemia within the first 24 hours of life: prevalence and associated perinatal factors. Pediatr. (Asunción) [online]. 2005, vol.32, n.1, pp. 10-15. ISSN 1683-9803.
Introduction: Neonatal anemia has been associated with immediate complications and with sequelae. It is therefore of interest to know how frequently it is diagnosed, and to determine its most frequent causes. Objective: To determine the prevalence of early anemia and the associated perinatal risk factors in neonates hospitalized in our neonatology service. Methods: Prospective, observational, analytical transverse cut study. This study included neonates (NN) of 28 to 42 weeks gestational age born at the Red Cross maternity between January 2 and March 31, 2001, who had a complete blood count within 24 hours of delivery as a first blood sample. NN with hemolyzed samples and NN with congenital malformations were excluded. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin concentration below 13 g/dl. Perinatal data were recorded in a specially designed form. Data were analyzed using epi info 6. Results: Two hundred NN fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of anemia was 42.5% (85/200). There were no differences in weight, sex, gestatioanl age or type of delivery between the two groups. However the percentage of very low weight premature NN was higher in the anemia group (AG) 42% versus 23% in the non-anemia group (NAG) (p=0.032). First minute Apgar score below 5 was seen in 27.5% in the AG and 14.7% in the NAG (p=0.04). Among the perinatal risk factors, PLACENTA PREVIA ABRUPTIO PLACENTAE was found in 7% (6/85) in the AG and in 1.7% (2/115) in the NAG (p=0.05) and DESPRENDIMIENTO ORMO PLACENTARIO was seen in 4.7% (4/85) in the AG and in 0.8% (1/115) in the NAG (p=0.01). Hemolytic disease as a cause of anemia was found in 5% (4/85). The predominant neonatal disease in both groups was transitory tachypnea of the neonate (TTNN). Conclusion: A high prevalence of neonatal anemia was found in neonates hospitalised for different diseases in the first 24 hours of life. Placenta previa and DNP were significantly more frequent in the anemia group as perinatal risk factors. Very low birth weight premature neonates had anemia at significantly higher rates, and hemolytic disease was the cause of anemia in 5%.
Keywords : neonatal anemia; prevalence; risk factors.