Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Internacional de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/rss.php?pid=2226-400020190001&lang= vol. 15 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://scielo.iics.una.py <![CDATA[The technological challenge and the teaching model]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= <![CDATA[The Strategic Management of Knowledge as an Instrument of Value Creation in Private Institutions of Basic Education: A Case Study]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= RESUMO Notadamente, as instituições de ensino básico no Brasil, assim como outras instituições educacionais, têm enfrentado constantes desafios provocados por mudanças no ambiente organizacional. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a Gestão Estratégica do Conhecimento como instrumento de valor em uma instituição privada de ensino básico. A pesquisa desenvolvida foi qualitativa. O universo do estudo foi constituído por uma escola de ensino básico da cidade de Campina Grande no estado da Paraíba. A abordagem desenvolvida nesse trabalho foi qualitativa e o enfoque utilizado foi exploratório-descritivo. Para a coleta de dados foi realizada uma entrevista semi-estruturada com os colaboradores e observações de campo. Os resultados encontrados na pesquisa destacaram a necessidade de valorização na subjetividade das pessoas no contexto organizacional. Conforme tais resultados, tornou-se emergente o conceito do indivíduo como colaborador organizacional, onde o produto das atitudes do colaborador é fruto dos seus processos cognitivos, tais como: inteligência, competência, experiência, capacidade, motivação, socialização, liderança entre outros fatores cognitivos que vão surgindo no seu cotidiano organizacional. Pelas nossas observações e conclusões, o comportamento do colaborador, enquanto um agente ativo da organização faz com que ambos (colaborador e organização) saiam ganhando em termos de benefícios intrínsecos.<hr/>ABSTRACT Notably, basic education institutions in Brazil, as well as other educational institutions, have faced constant challenges brought about by changes in the organizational environment. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the Strategic Management of Knowledge as an instrument of value in a private institution of basic education. The research developed was qualitative. The universe of the study was constituted by a basic school of the city of Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba. The approach developed in this work was qualitative and the approach used was exploratory-descriptive. For the data collection a semi-structured interview with the collaborators and field observations was carried out. The results found in the research highlighted the need for valuation in the subjectivity of people in the organizational context. According to these results, the concept of the individual emerged as an organizational collaborator, where the product of the collaborator's attitudes is the fruit of his cognitive processes, such as: intelligence, competence, experience, capacity, motivation, socialization, leadership among other cognitive factors that are emerging in their organizational daily life. By our observations and conclusions, the behavior of the collaborator, as an active agent of the organization causes both (employee and organization) to gain in terms of intrinsic benefits. <![CDATA[DIREITO NA EDUCAÇÃO: UM RAMO AUTÓNOMO]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100024&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= RESUMO O presente artigo objetiva demonstrar a importância da inserção do direito constitucional na escola, com um cunho de futuras gerações entender quanto é importante um ensino básico escolar. Como também o mesmo estuda a importância do direito à educação escolar, que, mais do que uma exigência contemporânea ligada aos processos produtivos e de inserção profissional, responde a valores da cidadania social e política. Buscam-se no processo histórico da modernidade, no acervo doutrinário e no conjunto normativo, inclusive internacional, as bases desses valores. A educação deve ser entendida como direito de todos, sendo uma prerrogativa que todas as pessoas possuem de exigir do Estado a prática educativa. Como direito de todos, a educação, pois, traduz muito da exigência que todo cidadão pode fazer em seu favor.<hr/>ABSTRACT The present article aims to demonstrate the importance of insertion of constitutional law in school, with a future generations to understand how important a basic school education is. As it also studies the importance of the right to school education, which, more than a contemporary demand linked to productive processes and professional insertion, responds to values ​​of social and political citizenship. The bases of these values ​​are sought in the historical process of modernity, in the doctrinal collection and in the normative set, including international ones. Education should be understood as the right of all, being a prerogative that all people have to demand from the State the educational practice. As a right of all, education, therefore, translates much of the requirement that every citizen can do in their favor. <![CDATA[The conversion of the null contract. Notes from Cuban Law.]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100040&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Resumen La nulidad absoluta del contrato resulta una respuesta tajante del ordenamiento jurídico ante la violación de normas imperativas por parte de los sujetos contratantes. Empero, en materia de Derecho también se aplica el aforismo de que toda regla tiene su excepción, y es precisamente la conversión del contrato nulo quien viene remover las rígidas bases sobre las que siempre se ha sustentado la teoría de la nulidad absoluta de los actos jurídicos.<hr/>Abstract The absolute nullity of the contract is a clear response of the legal system before the violation of mandatory rules by the contracting parties. However, in the field of law also applies the aphorism that every rule has its exception, and it is precisely the conversion of the null contract who removes the rigid bases on which the theory of absolute nullity of legal acts has always been sustained. <![CDATA[Teachers in formation and understanding of their pedagogical experiences: evaluation of the learning process]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100062&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Resumen La investigación tuvo por objetivo aproximarse a la comprensión de las experiencias pedagógicas en el ámbito de la evaluación del aprendizaje por parte de docentes en formación. Desde un abordaje metodológico cualitativo, se aplicó la técnica de entrevista semiestructurada (Bertaux, 2005) a 60 estudiantes de pedagogía en práctica profesional de una universidad regional. Los resultados dan cuenta de una clara conciencia en este grupo de las posibilidades de convertir la evaluación en un dimanante del aprendizaje, sin embargo, sus posibilidades de agencia en este sentido enfrentan el condicionamiento de una cultura instalada en los centros, sustentada en el error como criterio sancionador y en el status de la calificación, a partir de lo cual se asocian el uso de etiquetas, la realización de comparaciones y la búsqueda de selección, colocando de manifiesto la urgencia de una vigilancia ética sobre la forma de administrar la evaluación en el aula.<hr/>Abstract The aim of this research was to approach the understanding of the pedagogical experiences in the evaluation area of the learning process through the experience of teachers in formation. From a qualitative methodological approach, the technique of semi-structured interview (Bertaux, 2005) was applied to 60 students of pedagogy in their professional practicum from a regional university. The results report a clear conscience in this group, of the possibilities to transform the evaluation and generate a learning experience from it. However, the chances of manipulating this element face a conditioned culture installed in workplaces, based on the error as a sanctioning criterion and on the status of the qualification, from which the use of tags, the realization of comparisons and the search of selection are associated, highlighting the urgency of an ethical oversight on how to administer the evaluation in the classroom. <![CDATA[New Methods for a New Education]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100083&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= RESUMO Este estudo objetivou analisar as possibilidades de uso das Ntics, principalmente por intermédio dos Smartphones dos próprios alunos, como ferramenta no processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Na atualidade onde a tecnologia é presente em todos os setores da sociedade, cabem as instituições de ensino refletir sobre a importância de disponibilizar novos formatos de passar o conhecimento via as Ntics. Bem como listou-se aplicativos free para smartphones, onde os mesmos foram perfeitamente capazes de auxiliar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem no estudo de caso ministrado; sem impactos financeiros nesta modalidade de aula; e com rápida adesão por parte dos alunos já familiarizados com tais práticas tecnológica. Desafios de criar formas de como educar os jovens no seu território nativo e como educar os educadores neste novo mundo estranho a eles, ou seja: no mundo das novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação. Finalmente, por meio de todo o exposto, foi bem possível confirmar que novos métodos fundamentados nas Ntics, são poderosas ferramentas no processo educacional, usando estes recursos para tornar os alunos agentes ativos do processo educacional, como também para ajudar professores em suas praxes como, por exemplo, no processo de avaliação, progredindo para potencializar o ensino e maximizar o aprendizado por intermédio das Ntics.<hr/>ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the possibilities of using the Ntics, mainly through the students' own Smartphones, as a tool in the teaching-learning process. In today's world where technology is present in all sectors of society, it is incumbent upon educational institutions to reflect on the importance of providing new formats for passing knowledge through the Ntics. As well as free applications for smartphones were listed where they were perfectly able to aid the teaching-learning process in the case study given; without financial impact in this class modality; and with fast adherence by students already familiar with such technological practices. Challenges to create ways to educate young people in their native territory and how to educate educators in this new world alien to them, ie in the world of new information and communication technologies. Finally, through all of the above, it was possible to confirm that new methods based on the Ntics are powerful tools in the educational process, using these resources to make students active agents of the educational process, as well as to help teachers in their praxis, for example, in the evaluation process, progressing to enhance teaching and maximize learning through the Ntics. <![CDATA[IMPLICATIONS OF TAX REFORM ON GREEN TAXES THE CASE OF CHILE]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100103&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= RESUMEN El cuidado del Medio Ambiente ha ido generando paulatinamente mayor conciencia en las personas, el calentamiento global se ha insertado como tema de discusión a nivel internacional, la globalización del mundo es algo real, las campañas a su favor y la creación de sistemas autosustentables está aumentando la sensibilidad respecto a este tema. El gobierno a través del ejecutivo ha propuesto al poder legislativo, en el año 2014, un proyecto de ley que modificará el sistema tributario, con la finalidad de: financiar reformas educacionales, avanzar en la equidad tributaria, incentivar el ahorro y la inversión y disminuir la evasión y la elusión. Este proyecto de ley alude al tema del medio ambiente estableciendo impuestos aplicados a los emisores de gases contaminantes de fuentes fijas y vehículos que utilizan diésel como combustible. Este proyecto no establece medidas concretas respecto a incentivos tributarios para la creación de proyectos destinados a la generación de energías por sistemas no convencionales y renovables, con el fin de reducir efectivamente las emisiones contaminantes y aprovechar eficientemente los recursos ilimitados provenientes de grandes fuentes naturales, como son: el mar, el viento, el sol y la geotermia. Este proyecto de ley no presenta proposiciones para incentivar la preservación de los recursos naturales existentes en el territorio de Chile. Toma especial interés aquellos recursos que son renovables y que de ser explotados de manera racional son perdurables en tiempo. Es primordial establecer una política fuerte del gobierno que, mediante la herramienta de los impuestos, genere todas las condiciones posibles para la real protección del Medio Ambiente.<hr/>Abstract The care of the Environment has been gradually generating greater awareness in people, global warming has been inserted as a topic of discussion at international level, the globalization of the world is something real, campaigns in their favor and the creation of self-sustainable systems is increasing the sensitivity regarding this topic. The government through the executive has proposed to the legislature, in 2014, a bill that will modify the tax system, in order to: finance educational reforms, advance tax equity, encourage savings and investment and reduce evasion and elusion. This bill refers to the issue of the environment by establishing taxes applied to emitters of polluting gases from stationary sources and vehicles that use diesel as fuel. This project does not establish concrete measures regarding tax incentives for the creation of projects destined to the generation of energies by unconventional and renewable systems, in order to effectively reduce polluting emissions and efficiently take advantage of unlimited resources from large natural sources, such as They are: the sea, the wind, the sun and geothermal energy. This bill does not present proposals to encourage the preservation of existing natural resources in the territory of Chile. It takes special interest those resources that are renewable and that if they are exploited in a rational way, they are lasting in time. It is essential to establish a strong government policy that, through the tax tool, generates all possible conditions for the real protection of the environment. <![CDATA[Teachers´ collaborative work: new toward for teacher´s development.]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100109&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Resumen La educación chilena atraviesa por un proceso de cambios estructurales impulsados por nuevas reformas educacionales. La apropiada implementación del cambio educativo necesariamente ocurre a través de los principales actores encargados de la implementación de las reformas: Los docentes. Las investigaciones sobre el tema coinciden en que la implementación de reformas introduce elementos de tensión entre el profesorado, situación que se suma a los desafíos que enfrentan los establecimientos educacionales situados en comunidades educativas con altos índices de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. Esta investigación cualitativa, basada en un estudio de caso, explora el discurso de los docentes en ejercicio con respecto a su experiencia de trabajo colaborativo con sus pares contemplando los factores facilitadores y obstaculizadores del mismo. La información obtenida permite interpretar que la colaboración entre pares y su implicancia a lo largo del desarrollo profesional de los docentes se vincula a las distintas etapas vitales y de inserción laboral.<hr/>Abstract Chilean education is undergoing through a process of structural change driven by new educational reforms. Proper implementation of educational change necessarily involves the main actors responsible for reforms implementation: Teachers. Researchers agree that reforms implementation introduces elements of stress among teachers. This situation adds to the challenges faced by schools located in communities with high rates of social vulnerability. This qualitative research, based on a case study, explores the practicing teacher’s discourse regarding their obstacles and facilitators factors based on their experiences with collaborative work with peers. The data obtained shows that collaboration between peers is associated with teachers’ professional development and their working experiences as teachers. <![CDATA[REVISION OF THE PARADIGMATIC JUMPS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND PSYCHOLOGY FOR THE GENERATION OF CHALLENGES IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE INVESTIGATIVE EXPERIENCE]]> http://scielo.iics.una.py/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-40002019000100134&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= RESUMEN El presente artículo de análisis y reflexión tiene como propósito comprender las visiones epistemológicas en la investigación y por tanto su correspondencia con los paradigmas de la ciencia según la clasificación propuesta por Habermas, los cuales han tomado parte en el desarrollo de la psicología y las ciencias sociales y humanas, así como su implicación en el desarrollo social, de modo que una vez vislumbrada la frontera que ha sectorizado la psicología y en general el conocimiento, se plantean posibilidades de cambio en la transición de lo dicotómico a lo dialógico. Entendiendo lo dicotómico como polaridades semánticas en el discurso científico y lo dialógico como la posibilidad de construcción de un conocimiento integrador y no disyuntivo, en donde se conectan esas polaridades semánticas como emergencia de una comprensión de tejido en el estudio de los fenómenos humanos. Así, la emergencia del pensamiento complejo implica generar nuevas formas de pensar y hacer ciencia para transformar la practica investigativa, y sobre esto es pertinente precisar la necesidad de pensar la ciencia y el quehacer del científico con miras a favorecer un ejercicio científico ético y reflexivo.<hr/>ABSTRACT The purpose of this article of analysis and reflection is to understand the epistemological visions in research and therefore its correspondence with the paradigms of science according to the classification proposed by Habermas, they have taken part in the development of psychology and the social and human sciences, as well as their involvement in social development, so that once the frontier that has sectored psychology and in general knowledge is glimpsed, possibilities for change in the transition from the dichotomic to the dialogic. Understanding the dichotomy as semantic polarities in the scientific discourse and the dialogical as the possibility of constructing an integrating and non-disjunctive knowledge, where these semantic polarities are connected as emergence of an understanding of tissue in the study of human phenomena. Thus, the emergence of complex thinking involves generating new ways of thinking and doing science to transform the research practice, and on this it is pertinent to specify the need to think about the science and the task of the scientist with a view to fostering an ethical and reflective scientific exercise.